Environment / Environnement

Agricultural innovations in Morocco’s cannabis industry

Pierre-Arnaud Chouvy & Jennifer Macfarlane / 2018 / International Journal of Drug Policy.

In Morocco, subsequent to very localized, experimental beginnings in the early 2000s, the progressive and varied adoption of cannabis agricultural innovations at the cultivation and production stages has spread throughout the Rif during the 2010s. Interviews and direct observations conducted in the field indicate that the ongoing adoption of modern farming techniques has enabled the production of high-quality hashish and potent modern extracts. The still ongoing modernization and professionalization of the Moroccan cannabis industry is a testimony of the country’s leading position in global hashish production.

The New Moroccan Hashish

Pierre-Arnaud Chouvy / 2017 / Cannabis Now.

A close look at the rise of hashish production in Morocco, where cannabis cultivation has largely declined in the past few years and where a massive switch to hybrid varieties, which yield three to five times more hashish than the kif landrace, has taken place.

Le haschich marocain, du kif aux hybrides

Kenza Afsahi & Pierre-Arnaud Chouvy / 2015 / Drogues, enjeux internationaux.

En moins d’une décennie, le Maroc a vu, selon l’Office des Nations unies contre la drogue et le crime (ONUDC), ses cultures de cannabis baisser officiellement de 65 %. Alors que différentes sources confirment la baisse des surfaces cultivées, il est légitime de s’interroger sur la probable sous-évaluation de la production de haschisch extrapolée sur la base des superficies cultivées. C’est cette hypothèse que ce numéro de Drogues, enjeux internationaux souhaiterait vérifier, en confrontant, après un rappel de l’histoire récente du développement des cultures de cannabis au Maroc, les données quantitatives aux réalités du terrain, lesquelles se sont considérablement transformées ces dernières années, que ce soit en termes de hausse effective des rendements ou de teneurs en THC (tétrahydrocannabinol) que contient le haschisch revendu sur le marché européen.

Drug Production and Trade

Pierre-Arnaud Chouvy / 2003 / Encyclopedia of World Environmental History.

Since the first drugs – psychoactive substances that alter states of consciousness or increase metabolic performance – were found in the plant world, humans have interacted with plants from which drugs are derived in countless relationships between plants and society and between nature and culture.

Opium. Uncovering the politics of the poppy

Pierre-Arnaud Chouvy / 2010 /Harvard University Press.

The book sets out to expose the politics of opium. In particular it explores the world’s two major regions for illicit production of opium and heroin – the Golden Triangle of Burma, Laos and Thailand and the Golden Crescent of Afghanistan, Iran and Pakistan. These remote mountainous regions of Southeast and Southwest Asia produce more than 90 per cent of the world’s illicit opium. The book reveals how, when and why illicit opium production emerged and what sustains it. The text exposes the real drivers of the modern day trade in opium and shows why a century of international effort, and forty years of a US-led war on drugs, have failed to eradicate it.